ABCDE of Emergency Medicine


Tongue blocking airway

Airway: If the victim responds in a normal voice, then the airway is open. A common sign of partial airway obstruction in the unconscious state is snoring. Depending on the airway, you will need your nasopharyngeal hose and oropharyngeal hose.


Providing rescue breath

Breathing: If breathing is insufficient, assisted breathing must be performed by giving rescue breaths. This can be done with or without a CPR mask.


Sweaty Skin

Circulation: Inspection of the skin gives clues to circulatory problems. Color changes, sweating, and decreased level of responsiveness to touch are signs of decreased circulation.


Are you Okay

Checking alert and responsiveness

Disability: Check for consciousness using the AVPU method. This is when the victim is graded as alert (A), voice responsive (V), pain responsive (P), or unresponsive (U). Regardless of level, the best action is to keep the victim still and call for professional help.


Checking temperature by thermometer

Exposure: Signs of trauma, bleeding or skin reactions must be examined. Body temperature can be estimated by feeling the skin or using a thermometer, when available.



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